Những Bài Học Điện Ảnh – Kỳ 2: Góc Máy và Tính Liền Mạch

“Sự liền mạch về cảm xúc thì tốt hơn sự liền mạch giữa các cảnh quay!”

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Nếu như nhà văn sử dụng cây bút để viết lên câu chuyện của họ. Thì các nhà làm phim sử dụng máy quay để lột tả hết suy tư của mình. Một bộ phim chính là câu chuyện được kể bằng hình ảnh. Góc máy lúc này đóng vai trò quan trọng trong việc thể hiện câu chuyện ấy, mô tả cảm xúc nhân vật, chắp nối những cảnh quay rời rạc tạo nên tính liền mạch của bộ phim và trên hết, góc máy góp phần rất lớn trong việc quyết định cảm giác của người xem.

Giống như các ảo thuật gia trình diễn trên sân khấu. Nếu họ muốn bạn nhìn bên trái, thì họ chắc chắn sẽ khiến bạn phải chú ý vào bên trái chứ không phải chỗ nào khác. Việc đặt góc máy cũng vậy, bạn phải biết mình muốn khán giả cảm thấy thế nào trong cảnh phim ấy để đặt góc máy tốt nhất. Ta thấy rõ điều này nhất trong các bộ phim hành động, để đẩy mạnh cảm xúc của người xem theo các pha hành động kịch tính trong phim, các nhà làm phim thường di chuyển máy quay với biên độ cực lớn, bắt theo chuyển động của nhân vật khiến người xem như sống trong cuộc rượt đuổi của các diễn viên. Hay trong các bộ phim kinh dị, trước khi con ma xuất hiện, máy quay sẽ khiến bạn phải tập trung ở một điểm nào đó rất lâu trên màn hình, rồi trong lúc bạn đang tập trung nhìn vào điểm đó thì con ma bất ngờ nhảy bổ vào bạn, kết hợp với âm thanh và ánh sáng khiến bạn chỉ còn biết nhắm tịt mắt lại vì sợ hãi.

Chúng ta phải hết sức cố gắng tránh đặt những góc máy chỉ để phô diễn kỹ thuật làm phim, nếu như nó chẳng có tác dụng gì trong việc hình thành cảm xúc của người xem và cũng không lột tả được câu chuyện chúng ta thực sự muốn kể.

Lời khuyên là đừng quá chú tâm vào sự liền mạch giữa các cảnh quay mà tập trung vào sự liền mạch trong cảm xúc của người xem. Khán giả bỏ tiền ra rạp để xem phim của bạn, điều duy nhất họ quan tâm là họ cảm thấy thế nào? Họ không quan tâm nhiều đến cách bạn đặt góc máy ra sao? Và bạn đặt như thế để làm gì? Họ chỉ đơn giản cảm thấy thích hay không thích. Việc đi sâu vào các cảnh quay, cách sắp xếp bố cục và thiết đặt góc máy đa số chỉ có giới phê bình phim ảnh mới quan tâm và tìm cách bắt lỗi bạn.

Đoạn video dưới đây là ví dụ điển hình cho thấy sự phi logic và không liền mạch trong các cảnh quay của Frozen vẫn không thể ngăn nó đoạt giải Oscar cho phim hoạt hình xuất sắc nhất.

Tuy nhiên, điều này chỉ muốn nói rằng: Cảm xúc của người xem phải là ưu tiên hàng đầu chứ không có nghĩa phủ nhận tầm quan trọng của sự liền mạch giữa các cảnh quay, nó là ưu tiên thứ hai.

Trong các lớp điện ảnh căn bản, điều đầu tiên được bàn tới là tính liền mạch trong không gian ba chiều. Nhân vật A đi từ cửa phòng ngang qua giữa phòng, rồi cắt sang cảnh tiếp theo, anh ta sẽ tiếp tục từ vị trí giữa phòng đi tới cuối phòng nơi anh ta ngồi xuống bàn. Trong suốt nhiều năm liền, điều này được coi như là quy tắc không thể vi phạm. Người nhảy cóc trong không gian là không thể trừ khi đó là những bộ phim siêu năng lực. Tuy nhiên, qua những gì bạn vừa đọc ở trên, đã đến lúc bạn thay đổi suy nghĩ và đưa sự ưu tiên của tính liên tục trong không gian ba chiều xuống vị trí cuối cùng của danh sách.

Thêm một ví dụ nữa cho thấy sự ưu tiên hàng đầu trong việc duy trì cảm xúc của người xem đã tạo nên những bộ phim kinh điển như thế nào, bất chấp thời gian và sự chê bai của giới phê bình. Ở đây là bộ phim Waterworld do đạo diễn Kevin Reynolds thực hiện, phát hành năm 1995. Với kinh phí 175 triệu USD là bộ phim có kinh phí cao thứ 6 mọi thời đại của Hollywood (tính tới năm 2013). Waterworld được đề cử nhiều giải thưởng điện ảnh của Mỹ nhưng chẳng thắng giải thưởng nào, chỉ đoạt hạng mục Diễn viên phụ tệ nhất (vai diễn của Dennis Hopper) cho giải Mâm Xôi Vàng.

Trái lại, không cần biết giới phê bình đã chấm điểm tệ thế nào cho bộ phim thì bộ phim vẫn thành công về mặt doanh thu phòng vé khi thu về 264,2 triệu USD. Và được chiếu đi chiếu lại hàng ngàn lần trên Tivi. Năm 2012 bộ phim được xếp vào danh sách những bộ phim cần được Remake của Hollywood. Cho đến năm 2014 bộ phim vẫn được chiếu lại nhiều lần trên kênh Cinemax. Bộ phim là minh chứng rõ ràng cho thấy cảm nhận của khán giả khi xem phim rất quan trọng.

Cảm xúc lại thường là điều được nói tới sau cùng trong các lớp điện ảnh căn bản, có lẽ do nó là điều khó thực hiện nhất. Bạn muốn người xem cảm thấy thế nào? Nếu họ cảm thấy cái bạn muốn họ cảm thấy trong suốt bộ phim thì đó đã là thành công rồi. Cái họ rốt cuộc nhớ được sẽ không phải là phần dựng phim, không phải là công việc của cánh quay phim, không phải là diễn xuất, thậm chí cũng chẳng phải là câu chuyện – mà là họ đã cảm thấy thế nào?

Vậy thì bắt đầu từ bây giờ trước khi bấm máy quay một cảnh phim nào đó, bạn hãy tạm gác lại tất cả những nguyên tắc bạn được học về phối cảnh, về diễn xuất… thay vào đó hãy ưu tiên hàng đầu cho cảm xúc của khán giả bằng cách đặt câu hỏi: Bạn muốn họ cảm thấy thế nào? Và theo lẽ tự nhiên, mọi quy tắc về góc máy, bố cục, diễn xuất… sẽ tự động hiện lên rõ ràng để phục vụ cho ý đồ của bạn.

Hãy nhớ: “Sự liền mạch về cảm xúc thì tốt hơn sự liền mạch giữa các cảnh quay!”

 

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